DEFINING WOMAN AND THEIR CHALLENGES IN ISLAMIC AWAKENING MOVEMENTS

Fithri Dzakiyyah Hafizah

ABSTRACT:

Islamic awakening movements which occurred in some Islamic countries in the world currently are primarily caused by west cultures such as Liberal democracy that gives a lot of negative impacts toward human life and even against some Muslims worldviews.  For this reason, they (Muslim) try to carry out some Islamic movements to resurrect Islamic values in human life and to prevent from deviating cultures values brought by West propaganda to attack Islam. In this case, the main purpose of these Islamic movements is to achieve the Islamic Revolution.

In the sense of realizing the revolution of Islam, it has to do with the Islamism movements where Islamic laws (sharia) are used as the rule which regulating people or citizens in their countries. It means that all citizens in some countries live under the Islamic laws in their daily life. Accordingly, we can see some countries which are ruled by Islamic laws such as Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia for the examples. Especially, Iran is the most famous one as the revolution country that led by Imam Khomeini.

But, regarding the Islamism movements, we have to know that Islamism has the uniformity of politic cultures. Primarily, the indicator of measuring Islamism is to what extent the Islamism perceives and treats woman. It means that, even in the Islamic awakening project notably in social and politic, woman has important role same as man. On the contrary, nowadays, woman’s role in the social and politic sectors is relatively under the man. In another word, woman position is still perceived in the second place after man. As a matter of fact, in Indonesia itself (as the Islamic country), there are many cases regarding job division among male and female, that females have the low rate of participation notably in politics and social rather than males. However, the main factor of these cases is referring to some verses of Koran which impress that woman is the second creation which cause the Islamic exceptionalism[1] understanding.  In short, there are still a lot of misunderstandings about woman which cause sexual segregation in job division especially in Indonesia. That is why; there should be any reinterpretation of some verses of Koran about woman position and explanation about how important women’s role in the public especially in the Islamic awakening concerning their participation in social and politics.

Keywords: Women’s role, politics, segregation, Islamism, Interpretation, Equality, Indonesia’s female, PKS (Prosperous Justice Party).

Introduction:

Prior the descendence of al-Qur’an for the humankind, historically, there are a lot of civilizations on this earth such as Greece, Roman, India and China. Apart from that, the world recognizes about some kinds of religions like Jewish, Christian, Buddha, Zoroaster and so on.

Particular for woman dignity according to some civilizations that mentioned above, we can see that on the capstone of Greek civilization, women are only the media for releasing the men’s lust. It describes on the naked statues which left and spread over the Europe till today as the evidences of that outlook. In another civilization as Roman, women are fully under their fathers’ authority. But, after getting married, the father’s authority would be transferred to their husbands. And this power involves their authority to sale, to expel, to tyrannize and to kill their wives.

Different from Roman, in Hindu and China, a woman’s life right who has been getting married should be ended up together with her husband’s death. Thus, the woman should be burned at the same time when her husband’s corpse is burned. Furthermore, in Jewish perspective, they perceive that the dignity of woman is the same as (domestic) servant. In fact, they consider that woman is the source of curse because they believe that Adam was expelled from the heaven by woman (Eve).

However, not only those civilizations and religions which mentioned above that describe about the discriminations of women and their dignity, but also Islam which is known as the last religion that brought by the prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Accordingly, we mostly find some verses in Koran (Al-Qur’an) which show the representation that women position is under the men position. Subsequently, this interpretation becomes the fundamental understanding that truly the dignity of female is under the male. While currently we often find a lot of Islamism movements in the world such as Hizbullah, al-Jihad, Al-Harakat al-Islamiyya al-Siyassiya and so on, but in other side, we find that woman in Islamic perspective itself still crisscross before us. Moreover, Most of people followed the conservative outlook about woman based on what Koran said about woman textually. Consequently, the Islamic exceptionalism, nowadays, is spring up all over the societies and even become the conservative points of view on women especially in social and politics.

For further explanation of the relationship between Islamism and the presence of women’s social and political participation and representation notably in Indonesia, I would like to explain further about the challenges toward women participation in Islamic movement and the interpretation of the women role in Islamic perspective, and also I will explain about the female’s political and social participation in Islamic movement according to Indonesia context.

THE CHALLENGES TOWARD WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN ISLAMIC MOVEMENT

Women in Islamic Countries

            Certainly we have known about some Islamic countries that ruled by Islamic laws. For instance, we can see Iran as the revolution country that led by Imam Khomeini. But although the Islamic rules have been regulating citizens in their countries, there are still many people who demand for justice and their rights. It means that, though Koran considered as the best source for Islamic laws to regulate and guide human, there are still many problems that must be resolved clearly to create the right interpretation of Koran.

We often find the most famous cases in Islam for centuries are about gender equality and women’s right issue. Many people either in Islam or in the west perceive that Islam is the unfair religion because a few verses of Koran segregate the women position and said that the degree of men is higher than women. This case also becomes one of the ways from the West to attack Islam. Because if Islam concerned about the ‘rights of women and apostates so they (West) can ban the Koran and Muslim immigration to their countries. Thus, they can stop the Islamists and Muslims destroying Christian nature of Europe and the West.  Another that, the West have warped worldview, which is well-known as liberation, by skyrocketing divorce rates and plummeting birth rates, leading to a cultural and demographic vacuum that makes (the target) vulnerable to a take-over.

Concerning this, I would like to take a point of view according to Maryam Namazie regarding woman apartheid in Islamic countries as the example. Maryam Namazie[2] said that “For some countries which are ruled by Islamic laws such as Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia evidently segregate, degrade and relegate millions of women. The first reason is because keeping women and girls and unequal is considered as the important pillars of Islamic rule which affects every aspect of people’s lives.”

Moreover, she adds, In the sense of Islamic laws, sharia law itself specifies that woman is worth half that of man and that she is the property of her male guardian, needing his permission even to travel and work. She is considered as the source of corruption and chaos. Thus, she must be segregated at workplace, schools, libraries, etc. In Iran, there are even plans to segregate pedestrian walkways on the basis of sex. Alarmed at the large number of women university students, the Islamic regime threatens to limit female enrolment and change textbooks based on gender differentiation. According to an official of the education ministry: ‘The spiritual, physical, and mental needs of boys and girls are not identical, and therefore textbooks that give them information cannot be the same’.

Basically, Iran or other Islamic countries are not the main points that will be explained in this paper. Because as what mentioned before that in this paper, I would like to specify the subject matter on some cases in Indonesia. But, as far as I concerned in reference to what Maryam Namazie that one of the examples and evidence that most of people perceive that the women’s segregation and degradation are originated from some verses of Koran. That is why; now we find here some misinterpretations of the verses of Koran about females. But, although some exegetes have interpreted those verses to correct some misunderstanding, in fact some Islamists firmly defend their outlook and justify that point of view to the reality now. Consequently, women find some obstacles to get themselves participated in the public in the sense of social or political sectors due to a number of considerations about women identity their selves to play their role in social or political movements.

Common Perspective on Women in Indonesia

Recently in Indonesia, there are many cases that indicate infidelity or unbalance among male and female on job division. For example, females in Indonesia are sat on the lower position of bureaucracy than males. Accordingly, this infidelity occurs for some reasons.

The first reason, according to Ani Soetjipto – a researcher of gender research of postgraduate study program from the University of Indonesia – said that, “In Indonesia, broadly, the higher education grade, the fewer females who can access it. Because they need long time enough to achieve their fact of having fallen behind in the high education grade”.

The problem about woman’s role, she adds, make the public carrier become the double barriers for woman. Moreover, the stereotyping about woman is still widespread all over the society that females are attributed as the passive and uncompetitive worker. In addition, women in the age of reproduction, certainly they would rather to choose and focus on their household interest than bring to notice their carriers.

Thus, in the job world notably in Indonesia, there are some assumptions and considerations that woman should choose among household or carrier. And there is no choice that females can do their job as well as doing their household interest.

Accordingly, scholars of Islamic Studies in Indonesia agree that the religious worldviews tend to be the breeding ground for the absence of women’s political and social rights. They argue that a few verses of Koran are literally true as an important religious source of prejudice and misogynist against women. Subsequently, those verses have been interpreted textually by islamist to justify their conservative points of view on women in politics and social.

According to Burhanuddin Muhtadi, a political analyst at the LSI (Lembaga Survey Indonesia), says that in politics, some analyst suggest that women are more likely to ‘limit attention to the superficial and irrelevant aspects of politics.” There is a great deal of quantitative evidences that the low rate of female political participation and representation in the predominantly Moslem and Catholic countries can be explained by the ideological explanation. [3]

Thus, those explanations above definitely confirm evidences that women nowadays are still considered as the second creation after the men. And that is why; females find many obstacles before them to participate in social politics world. With regard to the Islamic awakening movement concerning Islamism, Burhanuddin Muhtadi again states that Islamist (Conservative groups) view on Women offers considerably misogyny and inequality between male and female showed by such tendencies as men are allowed to be polygamist, a sons right to inherit is twice as that of a daughter in the Islamic inheritance law, women should not become political leaders, women are not allowed by the Islamic law to be a judge, and the like. Therefore, these itemized Islamist outlooks on women may prove the presence of inappropriate political culture for the articulation of women in political arena.

Cosmology of Women according to Karlina Supelli

Karlina Supelli, the first expert in woman cosmology in Indonesia, explaining about the woman identity and a phenomenon about female’s social participation in Indonesia. She said that,  woman actually is not truly as an essentialist identity which becomes her fighting in the sense of named herself or participating within named the world. She does not look for alien identity which out of the collective struggles web denies hegemony and oppression. She also does not refuse the role of subject framer through language and hegemony named. Her struggling is within determine herself, which Allison Weir defines it as the capability to experience herself as the active participator and relatively coherent in a social world. In the sense of this understanding contain a reflection about, I ’am who face the question, “who am I and who I should be?” I am the one who have to name the meaning for my existence; and I can get it through my participation in creating meaning together.

In Indonesian context, this active participation has been long ago merged into some countries’ official documents which define the meaning of woman citizen. With the captivating language, the sociopolitical order in Indonesia (New Order[4]) government delivers the ideology about the role of women within construction and development. Even likely it has been fading away slowly nowadays, but this adhering identity into some pseudo glory types was succeed in building the subject of woman with the essential character, that is obedience.

Females are like receive the sacred trusteeship when they faced with the self-concept as a mother, which is “a family supervisor in the sense to create the family and society that have strong mentality, culture, and religion.” Accordingly, merged with woman concept as “the source of development,” which is underlining her role in economic sector, along with notice of country on the equal rights and obligations among male and female within the development in every sectors”, however, by paying attention on the nature, value and dignity of woman,” the country has the complete media to take benefits from woman.

First, woman’s participation in economic sector beside as the fulfilling of development paradigm which aims for economic grows, and also political-economy interest in relation with other donor countries which requires fulfilling of  citizen’s due (include woman). The dishonesty of the country is when the participating is not followed with the basically institutional change notably in the works device based on gender. Moreover, as a matter of fact; the women, a long time ahead, has set for the woman’s position as the household guardian along with the concepts of development. The second reason is that the concept of mother which serves to hold the political function to frame women become apolitical group that strengthen the control of government on their citizens.

By taking a role as the definer of woman, wife, also as mother and pour it into some official documents, the country consciously implements the concept of patriarchy in their policy concerning woman. But, they did it by hiding in the backside of gender values which has been deeply rooted in the society. Consequently, there was glorifying the mother’s role for developing interest occurred.[5]

Briefly, what Karlina said about women’s identity and position generally is related to the religious worldviews, especially here is Islam. Clearly, the concept of woman in the Islamic exceptionalism is described in the part of what Karlina said about the sacred role of female to be a mother of male’s children has framed women become apolitical group concerning the government controlling on their citizens.

THE INTERPRETATION OF THE ROLE WOMEN IN ISLAM

The Origin of Women and its Interpretation

By and large, Islam had addressed the subject of Women’s right over 1400 years. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was able to restore dignity and rights to women who were living in very degrading circumstances, through divine revelation, before women in other nations were given parts of their rights.[6] Prof. Dr. M. Quraish Shihab, MA, as the Koran Exegete, said that in Islamic Perspective, everything is created by Allah each with their Divine preordainments (Qadar). It is clear in the Koran Surah al-Qamar /54 : 49,

“Verily, We have created all the things with Qadar”.

The experts of exegesis interpret Qadar here as “the measures, characters which have determined by Allah for all things”, that is Qadar. Therefore, man or woman has their own nature (Qadar). Another that, The most popular verse which broadly used as the reference of the discussion about the beginning of the creating of woman usually is Q.S. Al-Nisa /4 : 1,

“ O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from both He created many men and women…..”

With regard to that verse, the meaning of ‘nafs’ here, based on most ulama’s opinions, is that Adam and his partner is his wife- Hawa (Eve). This opinion then expresses the bad perspective against woman, by stating that woman is part of man. Without man, woman will never exist. Even most of them argue that woman was created from Adam’s rib. This may be originated from a religious script (Hadits) which predicated to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). But, some of contemporary religious thinkers (contemporary ulama) understand it as a metaphor or even deny its validity.[7]

It is proved  as Karlina Supelli – an Indonesian Feminist (an expert on woman cosmology) – who  said that when we were young, we often hear that female’s body is different from male’s body because female is the part of male’s body (rib). The woman was originated from man. And all of us are actually the part of one big body. And that big body –according to Naomi Scheman’s statement – is man. Thus, all relations are connected to the one body, and that is man. However, females are related to their capacity to receive male’s sperms, so that she can become one again with that body (man).

In another sense, Karlina supelli adds that women are received belong to their family for some reasons, they are, as the mother of man’s children, as the holy treasure for men that her honor should be kept or allowed to be punished arbitrarily by his owner, or by them who wants to destroy the owner. Or just torture the woman when she was guilty, or torture them when their husband and their children were guilty, torture the women when a certain group in a society should be punished; or just kill their children to gag the women. Or break them to destroy the resistance.

It means that females have become ‘we of males’. This is the part of epistemology of equality. Nevertheless, women understand that their position in the world is always related with body and their bodies’ history that originated from the big body with gender male. And every struggle to deny the position which has been determined will cause the punishment characterized bodyness.[8]

Furthermore, Prof. Dr. M. Quraish Shihab subsequently emphasizes that if the statement (women are originated from Adam’s rib), thus, it should be confessed that this case only limited to Hawa (Eve), because either their children or their grandchildren, either male of female were originated from the fertilization between man’s sperms and female’s ovum. Allah said in Q. S. Ali-Imran/3 : 195, “… Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female. You are (members) one of another…”

Women Position Based on Verses of Koran

Indeed, naturally, we cannot deny the distinction between male and female. Ratna Megawangi, an Indonesian Feminist, even says “Let’s be different”. Accordingly, that distinction appeared on the physical or biological aspects. Besides, Allah reminds us in Q.S. An-Nisa/4 : 32,

“ And wish not for the things in which Allah has made some of you to excel others. For men there is a reward for what they have earned, and (likewise) for women there is a reward for what they have earned… “

That verse indicates that there are differences and extraordinariness among man and woman themselves. In another side, it can be convinced that there is no distinction in the intelligence level among those 2 genders. Referring to, based on Q.S. Ali-Imran : 195 which said : “So, their Lord accepted of them (their supplication and answered them), ‘Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you , be he male or female …”

It means that woman and man are equal in their own intellectual potencies. Besides, women are also can think, study and implement what they have learned from zikir to Allah along with what they think about this universe.

Thus, the gender between man and woman are equal in front of Allah. Indeed, we know that there is a verse which clearly said that: “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women,” (Q.S. An-Nisa/4:34), but this leadership is not allowed to led him to treat woman (his wife) arbitrarily. Because in one side, al-Qur’an commands either they are males or females to help each other. Another that, the husbands or wives are obligated to discuss or to deliberate each other about their problem. On that case, seems that this leadership responsibility is a kind of extraordinariness and it is looked higher than woman’s degree. Even, another verse clearly signals about that male and female’s level,

“… And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable, but men has a degree (of responsibility) over them…” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah/2:228).

Apparently, according to the ulama’s arguments the meaning of ‘degree’ here is the husband’s relieved toward their wife/wives to lighten some of wives obligations. Therefore, Syekh Al-Mufassiri, the professor of exegetes- Imam Al-Thabari, writes: “Although this verse is arranged in the news wording, but the real meaning of that verse is a recommendation for husbands to treat their wives morally and well. So, they can get that degree”.[9]

Women and Men as the Partnership

As a matter of fact, the relation between husband and wife, male and female is a partnership. From here it can be grasped why al-Qur’an describes the relation between man and woman, husband and wife as the relation to complete and to perfect each other that would not be realized without partnership.

Furthermore, the partnership in the wife and husband’s relation is stated as reciprocal necessity and relationship: “… They are Libas [i.e. body cover, or screen, or sakan, (i.e. you enjoy the pleasure of living with them- as in Verse 7:189) Tafsir At-Tabari], for you and you are the same for them,” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah /2:187). Meanwhile, in social activities clearly said that, “The believers, men and women, are Auliya’ (helpers, supporters, friends, protectors) of one another; they enjoin (on the people) Al-Ma’ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do), and forbid (people) from al-Munkar (i.e. polytheism and disbelief of all kinds, and all that Islam has forbidden)…” (Q.S. At-Taubah/9:71).

In other words, the understanding of “enjoin (on the people) Al-Ma’ruf” here involves the whole of improvement sector in life, including giving advice to the leader; nevertheless, every male or female suggested to follow the society development in order to be able to perform that function based on the steady knowledge. In short, whoever who disavow the massage of this verse standing; he or she is not only ignore half of society potencies, but also ignore the guidance of the Holy Qur’an.

FEMALES PARTICIPATION IN INDONESIA CONTEXT

Woman as the unique minority group

Dr. Nasaruddin Umar, MA states that sometime women didn’t aware that they have the weak position in the society.  They even rarely feel glad although the other woman’s groups sympathize. For instance, when they face a phenomenon, sometimes a woman group one feel anxiety, but other woman groups just consider it as a natural phenomenon.

Different from minority in the sense of ethnic, racial, and religion; the minority position of woman tend to less honored by man as the majority group. While, according to the history, women had given the contribution toward the struggle of social justice, for example, women had wiped the slavery in the beginning of- 19th century, and the struggle of trade union in the last of 19th century, and the other human rights struggle, but there are tendencies that those all mentioned have forgotten by people.[10]

Another sample case of woman discrimination in Indonesia is Marsinah tragedy.  Marsinah is a depiction of a female laborer who had become victim of collaboration between employers and the military. She said that such collaboration was not unusual because in the concept of a nation that favors capital, the military will always be needed and used to protect the investors’ production facilities. On 9 May 1993, Marsinah’s body was found in an open-walled hut at a paddyfield field near a teak forest in Jegong Hamlet, Wilangan Village, Nganjuk District, East Java, after four days of disappearance following a labor strike in PT Catur Putra Surya, a watch company.  When found, Marsinah’s body was all wounds.  Prior to the finding of her body, Marsinah was known to have staged a protest against Sidoarjo military authority due to the arrest of 13 of her associates who had been pressured to sign resignation letters. The suspect of the murder of Marsinah is yet to be discovered after 19 years. Next year (2013), Marsinah case would be 20 years, which will be the time limit for the case to expire. Vivi Widyawati, the spokesperson of Perempuan Mahardikai, said that the government has yet to put serious efforts on apprehending Marsinah’s murderers. She claimed that the government seems to care less in solving the cases of Human Rights and Female Rights violations.  [11]

Accordingly, that case is one of the proves that currently, in some countries, notably in Indonesia itself as my nationality, while the minority groups of ethnic, racial and religion are treated naturally, and their rights are guaranteed by the country. On the contrary, woman rights as one of the part of minority within society still mostly unnoticed.

Women Participation in Developing PKS (Islamism Movement in Indonesia Context)

Generally, PKS is stands for Partai Kesejahteraan Rakyat (Indonesia’s Prosperous Justice Party) and one of the Islamic parties in Indonesia. Basically, this party is one of a Soft Version of Islamism. Besides, PKS was successfully increased from 1.4% in the 1999 elections to 7.3% of the popular vote and 45 out of 500 seats. This achievement was attained specifically related to women role in increasing it. But, before we talk about women participation in Islamism movement in developing PKS, firstly we have to know about what is Islamism movement actually. In this limited study, I would like to take some points of view on Islamism and the role of women on it according to Burhanuddin Muhtadi.

Currently, Islamism term is interchangeably used by some scholars with fundamentalism, radicalism, militant, conservatism and hardliners. Islamism actually is more academically neutral address and it can be explained by the diversity of outlooks Islamic Resurgences, most notably in the post 1979 Iranian Revolution. Yet, there is no a universally agreed definition of Islamism. The international Crisis Group (ICG) broadly defines Islamism as “the active assertion and promotion of beliefs, prescriptions, laws, or policies that are held to be Islamic in character”.[12] Previously, ICG defined it more narrowly as “Islam in political mode.”[13] Similarly, Mounshipori states that “Islamism refers both to an Islamic reawakening in personal lives and to Islamic political activism as manifested in the reassertion of religion in Muslim politics and society”.[14]

While, Burhanuddin Muhtadi defines Islamism as “to what extent will Islam be perceived as a set of specific norms, integrated systems and par excellent values and, therefore, it contains named as, ‘the blue print of social order’.[15] Another that, Islamism has the uniformity of politic culture. Primarily, the indicator of measuring Islamism is to what extent the Islamism perceives and treat woman.

The specificity of Islam can be a certain religious of resource mobilization to perpetuate Islamist movements. Therefore, it can generally be said that islamist intend to replace the present social and political order with such norms based on a certain understanding of Islamic teachings. This may be carried out peacefully or through violent actions that is determined by the value system of the actors.

With regard to PKS, indeed, this party likely has taken roots from the Muslim Brotherhood, and calls for implementation of Islamic Principles in Indonesia, but this party not subsequently associated as Jihadist Islamism[16]. As I said previously that PKS is include to a soft version of Islamism. They possibly offer a selective vision of modernity, one in which Western science and technology are welcome, but Western value are shunned. But in contrast with Jihadi or Hizbut Tahrir, the PKS accepts the concept of notion-state and it looks reluctant to promote publicly the notion of Islamic caliphate. Moreover, PKS operates within democratic procedures that are participating on campaign and election.

As Burhanuddin Muhtadi said before, that Islamism can be measured to what extent they perceive and treat women. Concerning PKS, a number of indicators of PKS women political participation and representation will be upheld to measure to what extent Islamist view on women has influenced PKS political activities.

Islamist Women Political Participation in PKS

Most observers emphasize that the success of PKS was stimulated by its string efforts to promote new tactics to sympathize voters by selling universal issues which were formulated through “Clean and Caring” brand Image. Basically, that significant increase was not only due to strong virtuous image, but it was also stimulated by the success of its cadres-from various types whether beginner to core cadres-to advance political socialization among inside and outside of the party’s constituencies.[17]

Externally, the women cadres are highly concerned with the relative influence of different socializing experience through “the individual’s contact with, and membership of, significant groups: in childhood through family, school, neighborhood and peers and as adult through further education, work, marriage and social and political groups. Besides, those female contributions can apparently be seen by their active political participation in creating better PKS performances. In the sense of conventional participation, they extensively organized most of their party’s campaigns from its socialization to mobilization of its adherents.

Accordingly, hundreds of thousands of people, mainly women in headscarves have been getting involved in the serial of PKS demonstrations. Moreover, it is well-known that they usually conduct it with peaceful ways so that they help spread the positive perception among society towards the party. Those of accumulated female contributions were eventually believed as one of determinant factors behind the increase of PKS significant seats in the legislative bodies.

However, as a soft Islamism version, PKS is so much closer to moderate ones in which it emphasizes that women are the equal of their men counterparts. The female should avail herself of her rights to vote and be represented and consulted. Besides, PKS has frequently encouraged its women activists to vote or to be actively involved in generating votes. Even in unconventional form, PKS has frequently taken the mobilization of women rather than the secularists have done. PKS has also prepared its women cadres to be “a ready mobilization potential” for participating in the party’s social movements.[18]

Conclusion and Recommendation

Empirically, there are some obstacles and challenges which cause the representative of women in politics in the house of representative very low. In fact, there still any consideration or assumption that politics world is the men’s world, where the system and social patriarchy structure have put women position and men position unequally.

But, basically, women qualities in intellectual and other potencies are the same as men. Women in the contemporary thought of Islam are described as the same creation in the sense of their position in front of Allah. That is why, this equality subsequently realized as the opportunities that given to males and females for expressing their rights and their obligations.

And so do women in Indonesia. They have the same right, obligation and the same opportunities as men to participate in the sector of politic. Because politics is the fundamental domain for women’s rights fulfilling.[19]

On the basis of the explanations above, finally I come up with 3 major recommendations:

  1. Individual empowerment, such as upgrading the activeness of women in political participation in the sense of their role to build the Islamic society, and upgrading the conviction of quality which will maximize their role and stimulate them to be more participative in resolving the political – social problem. Over all, based on Islamic values.
  2. Institutional contribution in the sense of encouraging other Islamic parties to provide many spaces for muslimah as well as empower the quality of them concerning their knowledge mastery and practice on Islamic teaching/values and their horizon on politic.
  3. National partnership with certain respective stakeholders; to name a few, government, in this case the Ministry of Women Affairs (MUA), NGO ((Non-Governmental Organization), Educational Institutes (EI) and Indonesian Scholars Council (MUI) that heed more attention to women issues. Thus, they can collaboratively design a national program in empowering as well as facilitating the Muslim women to gain political participation in public through gender mainstreaming program (MUA), standardized national curriculum on women and politic (EI), international political and women projects (NGO) and the fundamental Islamic concept on women role in public, more particular in politic.

In short, having these 3 recommendations, I do believe that women role in political participation will be significantly increased in the future.

***

REFERENCES

Al-Khantany, Abdallah. H. Women’s Rights, A Historical Perspective. 2009: King Fahd National Library Cataloging in-Publication Data.

Lubis, Dina Anggita. Thesis: Partisipasi Politik Perempuan di DPD Partai Keadilan Sejahtera Kota Medan (Persoalan, Hambatan, Strategi). 2009. Medan.

Muhtadi, Burhanuddin. Substansia Journal (In his article: Islamism and Women in Politics: Analyzing Female Political Participation and Representation of Indonesia’s Prosperous Justice Party (PKS). (Jakarta : Paramadina),  Maret Edition: 2009.

Umar, Nasaruddin. Argumen Kesetaraan Gender Perspective al-Qur’an. 2001. Jakarta: Paramadina.

http://en.vivanews.com/news/read/311451-marsinah-case-to-be-expired-in-2013

http://arusbawah20.wordpress.com/2010/07/24/perjuangan-untuk-nurani-sastra-dan-hak-asasi-manusia/#more-239

http://maryamnamazie.blogspot.com/2008/03/challenges-facing-womens-liberation.html


[1] Islamic Exceptionalism according to Burhanuddin Muhtadi, a political analyst at the LSI (Lembaga Survey Indonesia), is that the most appropriate place for Mar’ah al-Shalihah is only house.

[2] That statement mentioned is Maryam Namazie’s speech at a seminar entitled ‘Sexual apartheid, political Islam and women’s rights’ in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of International Women’s Day on March 10, 2008 at Conway Hall, London which was organized by Council of Ex-Muslims of Britain and Equals Rights Now-Organization against Women’s Discrimination in Iran, and endorsed by the National Secular Society, the British Humanist Association, the Gay and Lesbian Humanist Association and the Organization for Women’s Freedom in Iraq. (Taken from : http://maryamnamazie.blogspot.com/2008/03/challenges-facing-womens-liberation.html)

[3] Muhtadi, Burhannudin. Islamism and Women in Politics: Analyzing Female Political Participation and Representation of Indonesia’s Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), (Jakarta : Paramadina, 2009), page. 60

[4] New Order (Orba) is a sociopolitical order in Indonesia since 1965 at the period of Mr.Soeharto used to be the president of Indonesia.

[5] Supelli, Karlina. Kapan Perempuan Boleh Menamakan Dunia?, Written on july 24th  2010, taken from http://arusbawah20.wordpress.com/2010/07/24/perjuangan-untuk-nurani-sastra-dan-hak-asasi-manusia/#more-239

[6] Al-Kahtany, Abdallah. Women’s Rights. A historical Perspective. (King Fahd National Library Cataloging in-Publication Data, 2009), page. 1.

[7] Umar, Nasaruddin. Argumen Kesetaraan Gender Perspektif al-Qur’an, Preface by : M.Quraish Shihab (Jakarta : Paramadina, 2001) page. xxvii

[8] Supelli, Karlina. Sebuah Senandung Hening Kemanusiaan. An introduction for the opening of picture’s exhibition about woman and violance. Taken from http://arusbawah20.wordpress.com/2010/07/24/perjuangan-untuk-nurani-sastra-dan-hak-asasi-manusia/#more-239

[9] Umar, Nasaruddin. Argumen Kesetaraan Gender Perspektif al-Qur’an, Preface by : M.Quraish Shihab (Jakarta : Paramadina, 2001) page. xxxi

[10] Umar, Nasaruddin. Argumen Kesetaraan Gender Perspektif al-Qur’an (Jakarta : Paramadina, 2001) page. 87.

[12] See, ICG, “Understanding Islamism,” p.1

[13] See, International Crisis Group (ICG) Saudi Arabia Backgrounder: Who Are the Islamist? ICG Middle East Report No. 31, 2004, p.2

[14] M. Monshipouri, Islamism, Secularism, and Human Rights in the Middle East, (London: Lynne Reinner, 1998), pp.1-2

[15] Muhtadi, Burhannudin. Islamism and Women in Politics: Analyzing Female Political Participation and Representation of Indonesia’s Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), (Jakarta : Paramadina, 2009), page. 61

[16] Jihadist (The Islamic armed struggle, which exist in 3 main variants : Internal (Combating nominally Muslim Regimes considered impious); Irredentist (Fight to redeem land ruled by non-Muslims or under occupation); and Global (Combating the West) and the characteristic of actors are the fighter (al-Mujahid)

[17] Muhtadi, Burhannudin. Islamism and Women in Politics: Analyzing Female Political Participation and Representation of Indonesia’s Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), (Jakarta : Paramadina, 2009), page. 67

[18] Muhtadi, Burhannudin. Islamism and Women in Politics: Analyzing Female Political Participation and Representation of Indonesia’s Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), (Jakarta : Paramadina, 2009), page. 73

[19]  Lubis, Dina Anggita. Thesis : Partisipasi Politik Perempuan di DPD Partai Keadilan Sejahtera Kota Medan (Persoalan, Hambatan, Strategi)(Medan: 2009) Page. 40

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s